Episode 7: Education Cleavage

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Transcript of Audio:

Welcome back to Three Deviations Out!  Last week we talked about the distributed internet and how to cut the ultimate cord.  This week we’ll cover the very real and distinct split in our education system.  I will warn you this week was pretty hectic so the episode is short, because education is already a massive topic I will be revisiting at a later date, don’t worry.

Now, before I get all riled up, let’s cover the basics:

What: The failure and subsequent splintering of education ideologies across the country as we all try to figure out how to break away from our antiquated system that will ruin us in only a few years.

Who: United States Department of Education, Common Core Advocates, Charter School Advocates, Teachers’ Unions, Private Schools, Non-Profit Education Initiatives, the Montessori Schools, F-infotech, Eduventures, Codeacademy, Duolingo, Lumosity, IBM, P-TECH,

Why:  In just a few years there will come a cleavage point in our society where the majority will not be able to get jobs with the skills they learned in high school or college, and those already in the workforce will have their jobs automated.  The choice will be to either upskill or give up, fall back on the state.  Unfortunately, at the scale expected our country will not be able to support the number of individuals whose skills will not fit into the new economy.  When that happens, we need to have a fallback plan to ensure the ability to keep going, to keep innovating.

83.3% of full time, first time postsecondary students received some sort of federal financial aid in the 2014 – 2015 school year, up from 75% ten years earlier. Overall, 38.3% of undergraduate students received financial aid in 2014 – 2015 with the average loan of $6,831 annually resulting in $27,324 of total debt in the expected 4-year graduation.  In the graduation year of 2009, though, only 53.8% of students nationally graduated their 4-year program within 6 years of the start date. As for high school, over the course of 4 years an average of 3.6% of students drop out nationally, with the majority (4.8% overall) dropping out in their senior year. In 2015 the United States fell just on the average of OECD countries in reading and science, and was lower than the average in mathematics.  As a country we are also investing less over time in primary and tertiary education as other OECD countries spend more, with steady declines in investment rates since 2009 though since then the economy has only grown.  Our country’s teachers are overworked and underpaid when compared to others and have minimal time to lesson plan and give feedback to students because they are consistently in the front of the classroom, teaching.  That’d be like expecting me to have a six-hour blog post ready to go each day, all prepped and researched by myself.  I could maybe do it for a week.  If that.

So, what we get out of that ramble is what many of us already know.  Our country’s education system is broken.  It’s been broken for a number of years.  However, with the technological changes making their way to the mainstream right now and a major socioeconomic shift in how we perceive what a ‘job’ is just over the horizon, something’s going to break.  Estimates suggest that 38% of Americans could lose their job to automation over the next 15 years with the biggest hits suffered in routine tasks such as manufacturing, administration, transportation, and logistics.  Using August’s job numbers, that is the equivalent of nearly 60,000 people across the country losing their jobs with no chance of receiving another position in their field.  That’s a population the size of Flagstaff, Arizona.

Today’s theory: A technological revolution will upend the socioeconomic system we’ve been contentedly dealing with for the past century or so, and we are not prepared for that.

What we’ll cover today:

  • Informal Education, including Public/Private Partnerships and Technological Reform
  • Use Cases
  • Things You Should Absolutely Know
  • The Idealized World in Amanda’s Head

Informal Education:

Education has increasingly become an intrinsically motivated institution.  From Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to online universities, high skill apprenticeships, technology incubators, and education apps, online or informal education is a growing trend.  Because of easy access, with cost and other barriers to entry removed many are understanding that a traditional formal college education is not necessarily providing the skills a person needs to succeed in the workplace or in society after graduation.

Use Cases:

As a mature and widespread market, education has a wide variety of use cases I could choose from to talk about here.  Because of that, I’ve chosen just one to focus on for each of the categories I covered just a minute ago.  The real-world examples I will be focusing on are: BASIS Scottsdale, Onondaga Community College, P-TECH and IBM, and Coursera.

BASIS Scottsdale:

The number one charter school in the country started in 2003 with 138 students.  The goal of the school is to merge STEM ideals with a liberal arts education, idealizing the merging of the fuzzy and the techie.  While focusing on traditional STEM and liberal arts subjects, there is a high emphasis on time management and organization.  For 5 years the organization has been listed in the Washington Post’s ‘Top Performing Schools with Elite Students’.  The option to go charter is a difficult one that all families have to make at an individual level.  A student may have more availability to resources and be more challenged than in a traditional public-school setting, but in turn may also have a more focused academic path chosen for them instead of being able to choose it themselves.  This school has proven its clout though and this and the other BASIS charter schools are making this style of education very enticing.

Community College

Community colleges are on the rise.  42% of undergraduates were enrolled in a community college in fall 2014.  Compared to the lofty price of a public or private four-year college, community college tuition ranges from just under $1,500 (California) to just over $7,500 (Vermont).  And depending on which state you live in, a community college will give you the same quality of education and access to resources as a full-time university while offering more flexibility and less expense.  Many community colleges offer partnerships with full-time universities to ensure credits transfer if you decide to move from the two-year program to the four year program, and business partnership allow these institutions access to internships and apprenticeships that may not be interested in those working toward a full-time degree.


There are 56 P-TECH schools in the country.  P-TECH stands for Pathways in Technology Early College High School, and these schools span from grades 9 to 14, instead of the traditional 9 – 12 model.  IBM has developed these schools to allow students an opportunity for a no cost associate’s degree in a subject area that has been deemed business necessary.  The focus is in STEM but also incorporates other necessary workplace skills like communication and business analysis.  Students are focused on a path toward a career from day one of 9th grade and can easily see the path to graduation with an accredited degree, removing the stressors of college application and tuition.  This public/private partnership allows for a different path than the traditional high school, and is offering an interesting use case study on what tailoring education to business needs actually accomplishes.


Coursera is a great meeting of the altruistic and the capitalistic minded.  The site does a great service; it provides high quality education through lecture, tutorials, class discussions, and interactive exams all available online.  Mostly these courses are free, or some aspect of them is free.  But in instances where someone wants to have a bit more recognition for what they’ve done there is the ability to ‘purchase’ a class and receive a certificate at the end indicating they’ve obtained that skill.  This allows for the more traditional university feel, with a type of degree received at the end, with a much lower price and more flexible hours than available traditionally.  Coursera has offerings spanning from deep learning to linguistics to art history and software development.  There are tutors available, study groups within each course, and access to top tier academic scholars.  Right now Coursera partners with 145 post-secondary institutions, has 25 million active users, over 2,000 courses, and four full-length degrees.

Things You Should Absolutely Know:

It’s hard to guess what skills we humans will need to have in the next decade or so.  With technology moving as quickly as it is I and we can make a lot of assumptions but really, it’s all up in the air until it actually happens.  There are a few things that are always key when interacting with one another and moving our society forward.  First of all, the ability to simply interact is key.  Communicating effectively and being able to effectively understand others when they’re trying to communicate with you is a skill that will never go away, and will become more important as many of us work in more collaborative settings today than we would have 10 years ago.  Another key skill will be the ability to access and assess our emotions in a positive way.  This goes along with communication but also ties in creativity and out of the box thinking.  By access and assess our emotions I don’t mean get all touchy feely all the time.  What I mean is the ability to be in a situation, check yourself, and make sure your reaction is appropriate to what is going on around you.  For example, if you are giving an important and widely watched speech, don’t allow yourself to get worked up into an angry fit and call people names.  Again, as we get more collaborative in our work spaces and communities, situational awareness and empathy are key skills.  Lastly, everyone should know how to use a computer.  I’m not saying you need to be able to code in C++ or hack into classified documents.  Just know the basics, and be willing to learn more as you do more in your online life.  Maybe take a Coursera on web development or html, or do some reading on the history of the semiconductor.  Tech is pervasive now, there’s no escaping it.  So know something about it.

The Idealized World:

There’s a realization we have to face as a society, and we have to do it quickly.  That is, we don’t know what skills will be needed in the job market in 10 years.  The majority of us are just making wild guesses while a few very impressive humans are making more educated predictions.  Especially with robotics and AI automation potentially able to more successfully complete a lot of tasks that make up entire current industries, we need to approach education differently.  Instead of the outcome of education being a specific job we should consider the types of traits and skills we want to see in our overall society, both professionally and socially.  We need to consider what it means to be uniquely human, and what kind of humans we want to mean.  And this especially means that education, either through formal or informal channels, does not stop at adolescence.  Learning new skills and being introduced to new ideas as a lifelong endeavor needs to become the norm, not the exception.  As we move to a less ‘job focused’ socioeconomic system we need to change our habits and preconceptions or risk falling into the proverbial pit.

Thanks for joining me for another episode of Three Deviations Out.  I hope you enjoyed it.  Leave comments, concerns, questions and arguments below, and follow me on Twitter @greaterthanxbar.  Next week we have a special treat, Jen Hamel will be joining us as Three Deviations Out’s first guest!  Follow her on Twitter @jenhameltbr and join us next week to talk about Artificial Intelligence.  The Robots are Here!



Episode 6: Distributed Internet

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Transcript of Audio:

Hello Deviators! Welcome back to Three Deviations Out! Last week we explored the wonderful world of data storage, including cool innovations like DNA and other 3D storages.  This week we’re delving into the murky waters of the distributed internet, a topic that until recently has been confined to peer reviewed papers and TV comedies.  Essentially it involves taking this distributed network of cables running across the globe connecting us all and instead of relying on the cables, it relies on the invisible, wireless connections our devices make with one another through wireless transmissions.  Before we get into that, let’s cover the basics:

What: The distributed Internet, essentially an Internet 2.0 that takes advantage of blockchain, IoT, and other emerging technologies and has the potential to solve a number of issues with the current internet structure.

Who: Ethereum, Rightmesh, Georgia Tech, Australian National Laboratory, Maidsafe, Golem, Raffael Kemenczy, FireChat

Why: The Internet was a game changer.  That’s fairly universally accepted.  Movement of information, knowledge, communication, and process from manual and hard copies to online has allowed greater access, transparency, and connection.  The internet took what was great about computers and allowed them to reach current maximum potential by connecting them, and us, all together.  Distributed internet takes that same idea and expands it, breaking down barriers to entry and allowing for an even more democratized and transparent system.  What we have now is great, but it could be better.  Over the last few decades we’ve had the chance to see in real time what large scale change has happened to our societies across the globe because of the internet.  Expanding that even further to the remaining half of the unplugged population, and fixing some of the bugs so the systems works in the favor of the many instead of in the favor of the few has the potential to be revolutionary.

So, that’s the theory of the day.  Distributed Internet is an outlier because it takes how we use the internet today, already a revolutionary tool, and injects it with democratizing steroids.  Theoretically.  Let’s explore! Today we’re covering

The Internet now



Use Cases

Idealized World


The Internet Now:

In 1962 Paul Baran published ‘On Distributed Communications Networks’ with the RAND corporation and thus the Internet was born.  Kind of.  Like all great tech this now ubiquitous aspect of our lives started with a research paper.  The Internet as we know it now is comprised of a complex system of fiber and coax lines that connects you to the billions of other online humans.  As of today (Tuesday Sept 12, 2017) there are 3.726 billion global Internet users, 1.252 billion websites, and 1.992 billion Facebook users.  Just today, 117.4 billion emails have been sent, 2.69 billion Google searches completed, 2.524 million blog posts written, 334 million tweets sent, 3.2 billion videos watched, and 44,782 websites hacked.  Total global internet use for the day reaches over 2.19 billion gigabytes, and it’s barely afternoon.  Jeepers that’s a lot of data!  Since the first website went live close to 30 years ago on August 6, 1991, the Internet has become entrenched in half the world’s daily lives.  It brings us goods through ecommerce, services like news, legal advice, health advice, any advice, and outlets through forums like Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, Quora, and others.  It has brought new prosperity to community support with easy to use peer to peer networks and crowdsourcing.  Most of all, the Internet has brought about the democratization of knowledge, like a more digestible, more robust, easier to access library.


As great as the internet is now, it could always be better.  There are some serious problems with today’s global knowledge center, the most glaring being that only about half of the population is an online user.  This stems largely from lack of infrastructure and while not difficult to see the cause, the solution to such a problem is less easily identifiable.  A few less straightforward problems we’ll cover today are content attribution, corporate consolidation, regulation, and anonymization.  I chose these issues because I consider them to be the most problematic of problems with the internet.  Comment below if you have thoughts on other issues or believe the internet is perfect as is and there’s no reason to change it.  I’d love to hear your opinion.

Content Attribution:

Content attribution is the idea that a content creator receives credit for the content they produce.  Often what is deemed credit is flexible so here I am defining credit as ownership of content and any repercussions thereof.  So, if there is some copyright shenanigans going on with a piece of content, it’s on the creator.  But also, if content is shared globally and goes viral that is sourced to the creator and they reap the benefits.  As it stands now most online media sites including Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, YouTube, Reddit, Quora, and LinkedIn obtain a ‘worldwide non-exclusive royalty free license (with the right to sublicense) to use, copy, reproduce, process, adapt, modify, publish, transmit, display and distribute such Content in any and all media or distribution methods (now known or later developed).’  That’s directly from Twitter’s terms of service, but the others are extremely similar.  Of those I looked at only Medium ensured the user that content would remain the creators and any distribution would be passed by the creator before completed.  As it stands the majority of content available on the internet doesn’t necessarily belong to a very large company, but that company has free, worldwide access to distribute or destroy it.  This can lead to controversial scenarios such as the destruction of YouTube videos showing violence, which happens to also destroy the very detailed video history created by the people of Syria of the war ravaging their country. It also leads to the need to own a piece of property on the internet before you content is actually yours.  While that property cost may be comparably small to physical property, the barrier to entry still exists. This is most damning in areas where poverty is high and the need to be heard is rampant, yet just being heard gets those creators little compared to if the content they were building was theirs.

 Twitter Content Terms Facebook Content Terms Facebook Content TermsInstagram Content Terms Pinterest Content Terms Reddit Content Terms Medium Content Terms LinkedIn Content Terms

Corporate Consolidation:

The internet was meant to be a global democratization of knowledge accessible by anyone.  I don’t know about you though, but I have one internet and cable provider available to me in the region that I live in, Comcast.  Where I last lived there was also one, Time Warner Cable now Spectrum, but Verizon Fios was working its way around the town and it was one of the most exciting things to happen in years.  Okay, so it was a small town and not much happened.  But having two internet providers is like seeing a unicorn and we were ready to embrace the magical creature even if it would take years for implementation.  Currently I am fascinated by this great map that shows the number of broadband providers in a given area in the US (the link is below).  There is a maximum of 13 providers in any given area across the country, but the number of areas with three or more providers is dramatically lower than the areas with only two providers.  And when you filter for areas with only one internet and cable provider, almost the entire country lights up.

Consolidation is not only happening with providers.  There is massive consolidation and silos in the actual use of the internet.  What browser do you use?  I bet I could guess.  At most I would need four guesses; Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, or Firefox.  There are others but the majority of internet users take advantage of one of those four.  As far as search engines go, you probably use Google, but you may use Bing.  Unless you use TOR, and then that’s a whole other story.  But in general, there is heavy consolidation with both the delivery and use of the internet, leaving those in power with the ability to make the rules up as they go and ignore us plebians just trying to effectively use this truly amazing tool.


These corporations that have become highly consolidated are also highly unregulated and have been that way since inception.  Because of this, providers have been able to drive prices up for mediocre services and those which were able to get into the business at the beginning have enough control over those who would write regulation that it isn’t going to happen without major lobbyist reform.  This lack of regulation just creates more lack of regulation as these companies consolidate (e.g. the Charter acquisition of Time Warner Cable last year) as power consolidates with the companies.  The only leg that we consumers have to stand on is anti-trust (e.g. the attempt of Comcast to acquire Time Warner Cable two years ago).  Without effective regulation these companies operate essentially as monopolies in the territories they have sliced up and come to agreements on with the other providers.


The internet has given access to free speech for all, an extraordinary feat and a great addition to humankind.  Unfortunately, this free speech has come on the heels of anonymization, and that has led to a growing divide across ideologies as individuals and rhetoric online becomes more and more charged.  Being able to hide behind a screen and a username brings people a confidence they don’t have in the physical world; confidence to say something they may not have, to back an opinion they may not believe in, or to attack someone they may otherwise be polite to.


In this ever-quickening age of emerging technology there seem to be solutions promising to address every type of problem the world has to throw at us humans except for maybe us humans.  Oh wait, we have robots for that.  We’ll get into that in a few weeks.  But what this means is since the inception of the internet there have been some pretty tremendous breakthroughs in technology that have the potential to fix the problems we just spoke of.  I say ‘have the potential’ because you never really know if someone can swim until you throw them in the water.  Until we have analytical proof though, what I’ve seen of these technologies is enough to convince me that there can be a true concerted effort to right the wrongs of our global communications system.


Blockchain is the killer of the troll.  Especially when used in the right way.  The distributed ledger allows for all transactions of a particular block to be tracked with transparency back to the inception of that block.  By attributing blocks to individual users, other users are able to see the actions and history of that user.  While this still allows for anonymity of a user from their physical persona, it essentially creates a line of credit for their online persona.  If a user is discredited in one forum or community, that will follow them to the next forum or community they enter.  They will then have to build their credit back up from the wreckage.  Sure they could create another user, wipe the slate clean, but that would be like having no credit and I don’t know about you but I know what a bank says to someone who has no credit.

IoT: IoT is a global, diverse, and distributed collection of devices that talk to one another wirelessly and range from those that fit under our skin to those that fit in our pocket and those that take up floorspace in our kitchen.  From RFID trackers to devices on manufacturing equipment to drones and washer dryers, connected devices are being integrated into nearly every current generation hardware piece.  Wifi enablement has allowed these devices to become integral in both our daily lives and corporate processes with use cases spanning from consumer to enterprise.  What this means is more connected computing power is moving around the globe in shipping containers and in our pockets today than even existed 30 years ago.  And all of it operates wirelessly. This is the key to the distributed internet, the fact that there exists a wireless, mobile network of hardware.  Essentially this is what the phone lines were to the original internet connections.  Now they run on their own fiber or coax but the first internet connections relied on existing infrastructure just as internet 2.0 will rely on the existing infrastructure of wireless devices.


Quantum computing and especially quantum communications will be the second wave of internet 2.0 similarly to how dedicated fiber and coax lines were the second wave of the internet.  Quantum communication with an established network has the potential to open up communication lines to the entire current unconnected population.  However, that will take more than a few years to establish and a reliable quantum communication network cannot be expected until 2030 at the earliest.  Until then we must rely on what we have and hope that like AI and quantum computing (different from quantum communication) progresses faster than expected.

Early Adopters:

As I mentioned a few weeks ago us millennials are the generation of tech for tech’s sake.  We are early adopters, we are those who gave Google Glass a chance and are willing to implant chips in our skin for work.  That is exactly what is needed in the distributed internet.  The general concept creates better service as there is more adoption, and there needs to be trust from the early adopters that things will get better as word spreads.  So don’t be wary, initial users, it will get better.  The way mesh networks work is by bouncing off devices within a given distance of one another.  As wifi and Bluetooth ranges improve so will these applications but what will improve the services faster is just having your friends sign up and them having their friends sign up and their friends and so on.

Use Cases:

While implementation of what is considered a distributed internet is still in its infancy, there are a few companies and institutions which have begun to lay out how the overall theory would come into reality.  Today we look at RightMesh and FireChat, all of which are attempting to bring into reality the distributed internet.

On September 7 2017, RightMesh released a whitepaper outlining a distributed internet system that operates off the devices already operating globally. The company relies on its software that can be installed on any device and allows users to profit off of unused processing power and internet bandwidth.  Currently the software is in beta and available on Android and Java enabled devices, and is not available in the US or Canada. Key to the RightMesh platform is developers to create integrated apps in local languages.  The company has provided a free software development kit.  As with other mesh networks this one relies on a userbase, and gains strength and stability as that userbase increases.  As we begin to see adoption rates increase we will better understand the benefits and implications of this particular application of distributed networks.

Many users of FireChat advocated using the application for those involved in the catastrophic hurricanes of the last month as powerlines and internet connections and cell towers went down across entire major cities.  This application is a messaging app that allows users to communicate with one another across a given distance without internet connection or cell service.  It uses the Wifi or Bluetooth embedded in a devices existing hardware to send a message.  This is limited to just over 200 feet between any given device but messages are able to bounce across other devices within the network until reaching their destination, so the more people who download the app the further messages are able to travel.  This is particularly advantageous in exactly this type of disastrous situation, where people may be stuck in closed off homes with no communication available as rescue and recovery teams pass by outside.  Again, the downside to this application is the need to have mass buy in; larger communities of users means better service so the first users may experience less than satisfactory services.

Idealized World:

I am an internet idealist.  An optimist some may say.  I believe in the internet as a democratizing force that enables users through knowledge and opportunity to make something better out of their lives.  It could be the great equalizer.  Right now, it is not.  Which is unfortunate but there’s no help in moping over it.  Instead the generation of tech can get off our asses and actually do something about it, like build a better one.  With the emerging technologies we have available at our fingertips the largest problems of the current internet will not disappear over time.  They just won’t exist in the first place.  The technology won’t allow those issues to be viable in the protocol.  Of course, there will be other issues that inevitably arise, as with all things, and we can tackle those when they come too.  Remember, when the first internet emerged those on the forefront thought about it idealistically as well.  We just happen to be starting the cycle all over again 30 years later.

Thanks for spending some time with me today while I fleshed out some ideas about the distributed internet.  Speaking of fleshed out, this episode was pretty bare bones, so I will be most likely following up with another on the same topic as more information arises.  If you’re interested in being on the podcast or just talking about interesting topics with me please reach out, I love to hear about all the cool and awesome things different people do with their lives.  I hope you enjoyed this today.  Next week we discuss the swift and strong break in education and how we are digging a deeper hole for ourselves every day we stand still. Be greater than average friends!



Episode 5: Data Storage Revolution

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Orders of Magnitude

Transcript of Audio:

Hello and welcome to another episode of Three Deviations Out. My name is Amanda and I think for a living.  Last week we talked about millennials and the technology that shapes our lives.  This week we’re breaking down the details of the data storage revolution.

Data is not an outlier.  By now we all know that.  Data is an integral part of our lives, a looming constant that determines our decisions and grows as we create outcomes and outputs.  The outlier today is not data, but what we humans store all that data on.

What: The data storage revolution is the current and previously uncharted territory of data storage innovation, driven by the need to create more and more data centers to store that data we humans keep creating.

Who: IBM, Microsoft, SanDisk, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Fritz Pfleumer, the University of ElectroCommunications, Intel, the University of Manchester, Arizona State University, the University of Washington, Stanford University, and MIT

Why: Generally, we as humans tend to be packrats.  In the digital age that hasn’t changed and may be even more pronounced.  Photos of vacations you took years ago that you haven’t looked at, well, in years, are taking up space in that cloud drive or directly on your device.  That space isn’t arbitrary, and whether you store on your device or in the cloud there needs to be hardware to back it up.  Acres upon acres of land are owned by the US government, Amazon, Microsoft, IBM, Google, and other larger data center providers and users.  The opportunity cost is potential farmland in a world where rural hunger and food deserts are a real thing.  Or potential housing when home and rental prices are skyrocketing.  Or potential natural space in a time when some kids think a baby carrot is actually what a carrot looks like. Innovation in data storage has massive implications on the physical space we humans take up on a large and influential scale.  Also, if there isn’t innovation in the space it means that we will have to learn to start changing our nature as data piles up and we can’t build any more data centers or virtualize any more machines, forcing ourselves to cleanse of the unnecessary information we tend to cling to.  Cloud prices, right now next to nothing, would continue to increase until only the affluent and the corporate can afford additional space.  And tell me, how will I load another video of my dog chasing her tail then?

That’s the thesis today folks; data storage is an outlier because it has the potential to make or break the influence wonderful emerging tech will have, because without someplace to store it all there will be no revolution.

There will be no use case section today because there is one way to use data storage: to store data.  If I’m wrong please feel free to educate me in the comments.  Instead today’s provided program will look as such:

  • The History
  • The Trigger
  • Implications
  • New technology
  • Ideal world in Amanda’s head


The History:

In the 1970s when microchips began the trend of getting a makeover every 18 months, storage methods were widely left alone.  The common mindset was that there would never be the need to store so much data that it warranted significant innovation.  Enter the Internet, essentially ubiquitous access to cloud storage, and the desire of every organization and private citizen for big data analytics.  Not only is the sheer amount of data larger than it has ever been (90% of the world’s data in 2016 had been created in the previous 2 years) and expected to reach 44 trillion gigabytes by 2020, there is also increased demand for edge storage.  Edge storage is often on IoT devices that are small and track automated processes and demand for analytics and storage directly on these devices will only continue to increase as blockchain across devices becomes more prevalent. So today we focus on the data storage revolution and how hardware can keep up with the Yotta- prefix.

Storage is based on magnetization; if a particle is printed on the storage device in one direction that particle is read as a 1 and if it is printed in the other direction that particle is read as a 0.  This writing of information has essentially been kept the same for the entirety of data storage history but gotten smaller along the way.  The first magnetic tape was patented in 1928 by Fritz Pfleumer.  This style of storage wasn’t actually used for data, though, until 1951 in the Mauchly-Eckert UNIVAC I.  Key to this type of storage is that it can be overwritten, allowing for old information to be purged and new added to it.  Especially for consumer devices, which often don’t hold as sensitive data as public or private organizations, the ability to rewrite allows for both cost and space savings.

This first magnetic tape was able to hold 128 bits of data per square inch, and the first recording of data was 1,200 feet long.  A recent breakthrough by IBM has brought the density of magnetic tape to 201 gigabits per square inch.  That means one inch of this new tape would have fit on 1.57 billion inches of Pfleumer’s tape, or 24,784 miles of tape and over 83,000 books of storage.  Now all of that is able to fit in a space shorter than your pinky finger and thinner than the width of your phone.

The Trigger: 

That may seem like a lot of storage, but think of the amount of data generated daily.  Every day we humans create 2.5 quintillion bytes of data, which when written out has 17 zeros and is converted to 2,500 petabytes.  Petabyte is a new one so you may not have heard it used yet, but it is one factor larger than terabyte.  The embedded image at the top of the page is a really handy reference chart if you would like to know all current 48 orders of magnitude.  Petabyte is the second largest.  Data rules over our lives these days.  What is captured by our daily activities has repercussions on the ads we see, the loans we qualify for, and even what careers we’re considered for.  Data is king, and data storage is both the army of and history written about that king.  This has proven to be a complex relationship as we continue to create more and more data.  Constantly adding servers doesn’t quite work because the more servers the more management there is required, and the more management required the greater likelihood of a crash or a bug derailing the entire system or worse accessing sensitive data held in that storage capacity.  Also, just adding servers creates more convoluted connections between all that hardware as they all try to communicate with one another, processing or querying data stored across an entire server farm.

There are a number of ways this issue is being combatted right now.  One is middle out storage, developed by HPE and illustrated in the development of The Machine.  This allows for all data being processed by given hardware in the network to be stored in a single location, decreasing space requirements and increasing the ability to query across an entire collection of data.  Another effort includes the molecular storage of data at cold temperatures, a technique still relying on magnetism but shrinking the space needed to house the same amount of data exponentially.  As the ability to store on the molecules edges toward the temperature of liquid nitrogen, a fairly inexpensive cooling system, the scalability and commercialization of this method becomes highly viable.


Plans for the world’s largest data center have been proposed by Kolos Group, a US-Norwegian partnership that also operated in fishery & aquaculture, oil & gas, and power & industry markets.  The large facility is planned to meld with the landscape through efficient design and much of the expected 1,000 kilowatts of power are expected to come from renewable energy.  This is just the latest and largest in a wide range of data center types, sizes, and locations.  As we continue to create data at greater and greater scales without purging of what we created yesterday or the day before our need for storage is going to continue to increase even as storage forms become denser.  That means more space being taken up by storage facilities and more power being used to run those facilities, causing a not insignificant impact on the environment.  In an age when housing prices are a struggle for even those well employed continuing to dedicate larger amounts of land to storage only exacerbates the problem.  Data storage facilities aren’t all bad though.  High skilled workers are required for each of these centers in areas spanning from admin and management to high tech data systems capabilities to cyber and physical security.  Not only that, but often these fields are underpopulated and so offer wide opportunity for those just starting their careers or those looking to shift careers.  With greater environmental efficacy and planning to optimize space, along with continued advancements in the tech we humans have the potential to comfortably live with our desire to hoard everything, even data.

New Tech:

In lieu of use cases today, we’re going to look at some of the new technology that is being researched and tested in the data storage sector.

Molecular Storage:

Blockchain and the desire for edge computing, in addition to the massive amounts of data being created daily, are spurring the need for smaller and cheaper data storage options.  E.g., if a product is being tracked through the supply chain with blockchain enabled RFIDs, the device needs to be small and cheap enough to span across hundreds of thousands of items of varying sizes while also being able to hold data for all the blocks in the chain associated with it.  In comes our first new tech, molecular storage.  While still in the research phase, molecular storage would enable high density information to be written on a single molecule, 100 times more dense than current technology.  The downfall of molecular storage is the need to keep these molecules cold. Very cold.  Recently a University of Manchester team working on this technology made a breakthrough in bringing the required temperature from -256 C to -213 C, a decrease of 53 degrees C.  However, -213 C is still tremendously cold (the equivalent of -351.4 F) and cold enough where there is not currently effective and inexpensive cooling technology to support it.  Continued research hopes to bring molecular storage down to a cooling temperature of -193 C, which is the temperature of liquid nitrogen.  This product is relatively cheap when speaking in terms of high tech cooling systems and would be a breakthrough in the commercialization of the technology.

DNA Storage:

As weird as it sounds, let’s start printing things onto biology.  I mean, we’re already printing biology, with some 3D printers able to print organs live for transplant.  So why not print directly onto the fabric of what makes us us.  That is what researchers, including the team at the University of Washington and Northwestern University’s Center for Synthetic Biology, plan on doing. Like molecular storage, DNA storage is 3D and therefore denser.  Unlike molecular storage, DNA storage is further along in the GTM process.  While still very much in the research and development phase, there have been some highly publicized and very interesting applications of the technology.  E.g., the team at Northwestern was able to print a movie onto DNA storage in April of this year.  The movie ‘Ride On, Annie!’ of a horse running was encoded into E. coli DNA.  This specific application was encoded into an actual living organism, the E. coli cell itself.  Both DNA storage and announcements by Arizona State University researchers of an RNA constructed biological computer have significant implications in the furthering of technological and biological crossroads.

3D storage/processor combo:

Bottleneck is a real thing.  Between two chips, like a storage chip and a processing chip, bottleneck creates data latency which at scale is a scalable problem.  That sounds like gibberish you say? Try watching your Excel model struggle processing a sheet full of sumifs formulas on 700,000 rows of data.  Do you know Word?  I Excel at it.  I’m going off on tangents.  Anyways, a joint effort by Stanford and MIT have produced a solution; a 3D chip that is both a processor and a storage mechanism.  The device uses nanotechnology with carbon nanotubes instead of a silicon based material and have developed the most complex nanoelectric system to date.  Layers of logic and storage are woven together to create a web of detailed and complicated connections.

Advances in tape storage:

Lastly I want to again touch on tape storage.  As I mentioned earlier, IBM has recently announced a revolutionary tape that holds 330 terabytes in a length about as long as my pinky (pinky size may vary).  Tape technology is the oldest form of storing data and has continued to evolve from the outset.  Expect to see more from this legacy tech in the future, it’s not going anywhere.

Idealized World: 

We humans create a lot of data.  Especially as the generations who grew up on screens start to overtake those who didn’t, data consumption and creation will continue to grow.  It has to go somewhere and someone has to pay for it.  I see a variety of these data models I spoke about today, along with a number of other emerging and legacy technologies, to optimize our space requirements.  I also imagine that we as a society will start learning how to parse down on the data we keep, understanding more accurately what will bring use and what will sit in the back of the closet collecting dust.  What I know for sure is that if we continue this upward spiral into the data dimension we will get lost in cyberspace and not realize the space around us has become exponentially more cluttered with hardware.

Thanks for listening today guys, this is everything I currently have to say about data storage.  As always, comment below for any request, recommendations, corrections, updates, and overall bashing.  Next week we dive into the murky waters of the distributed internet, so buckle up.  Til then go do something greater than average.



Episode 4: Millennials and Tech

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Transcript of Audio:

Hello, and welcome back to Three Deviations Out.  Last week we talked about quantum computing and all the weird crazy fascinating earth shattering things that hard tech can do.  This week we’re going to pull back into soft tech and the people who use it, namely millennials.  Trigger warning, I’ll be talking in averages here so this may not all apply to you.  Let’s dive into what makes our generation just so special, like why we need to hear that we’re so special.

88% of internet users 18 – 29 are on Facebook, compared to an average of 79%.  59% of that same age group is on Instagram with an overall average of 32%, and 36% are on Twitter compared to 24% of all online adults.  As an age group, we’re even more likely to be using LinkedIn with the demographic at 34% compared to an overall of 29%.  Not only are we as millennials, which actually currently represents anyone from the ages 22 – 37, more likely to have social media presence we also spend a lot more time on them.  A dscout study found that on average mobile phone owners touch their phone 2,617 times a day, with heavy users reaching an average of 5,427 touches a day amounting to 225 average daily minutes on the phone.  Guess where our age group falls on that spectrum…dingdingding right up there at the top.

We are a generation that grew up on the internet, that has always had information directly at our fingertips either at school, at the library, or in our homes.  I know, I’m speaking in generalities.  There are many people within this age group that for whatever reason, whether they grew up on a Himalayan mountaintop or rural New York State and Internet penetration didn’t happen until after adolescence, or you are on the upper end of the age spectrum of the group and don’t like being lumped in with those of us who never had to use dial-up.  Now, however, technology and especially the internet are unavoidable aspects of daily life driving social change and nightly hookups and whatever else you feel like doing on your phone or laptop or tablet or desktop.  As a generation that grew up with literally the entire world of information at our fingertips we’ve turned out a bit different than those who came before us, and there’s no shortage of people trying to point that out.  What I want to get into in today’s episode is where the hype ends and actual evidence shows us being different from those who came before us, especially because of the influence all this technology has had on us.

What: The technology influencing our daily lives, including social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Pinterest, LinkedIn, etc.), crowdsourcing, forums (Reddit, Quora, StackOverflow, etc.), financial support (Mint, Betterment, Acorns, Robinhood, etc.), ecommerce (Amazon, Etsy, Alibaba etc.) and the things we see it all on – screens (phones, tablets, ereaders, laptops, desktops, etc.).

Who: Millennials and our codependent relationship with technology.  Whether this relationship is good or bad, it exists and it is influencing us in a number of ways.  We represent a group 22 – 37 who grew up on tech, had cell phones in high school or earlier (unless your parents were really strict) and spend an outrageous amount on student loans.

Why: Millennials are the first generation to have unlimited knowledge and connection at our fingertips anytime we want.  And yes, we as an age group are not the only ones who have access to that phenomenon.  However, we are the first to have grown up with it.  We’re the first generation where interaction didn’t end when you came home from school because you could get online and chat with your friends on AIM.  Remember AIM?  This has caused movements of all sort with potentially the largest being the Arab Spring, a slew of revolutions protesting horrific treatment by oppressive regimes driven by young people and their connection with the rest of the world through social media.

Today we will cover:

  • Why we’re different
  • How we’re different
  • Use Cases
  • Ideal world in Amanda’s head

Why We’re Different

Screen Time:

In my two-person apartment there exists 11 screens of varying sizes, 8 of which are used on a regular, almost daily, basis.  This includes laptops, phones, tablets, extra monitors, and a projector.  On the average weekday, I spend anywhere from 10 – 15 hours staring at screens.  Granted, 8 of those hours are work, where my job requires me to be at a computer, and I do spend some time outside work reading articles for this time I spend with all of you. Still though, that’s a lot of time in front of a screen.  I’m not alone either.  Consider my stat from earlier; the average millennial spends 225 minutes a day touching their phone.  That’s nearly 4 hours a day swiping right or whatever it is you like to do with your screen.  Far and beyond any generation before us we are addicted and tied to our screens.

Access to Information: 

Because I have a computer in my pocket constantly, I am always right.  Or at least that’s the theory.  Good or bad we are the generation of constant access, both to one another and to the answer of any question we may have.  There are even now little voices you can ask just to Google things for you (e.g. Siri, are you a human?).  No longer does anyone buy sets of encyclopedias unless they want to look like a distinguished gentlemen from 1910.  I don’t know if I have to go on about this for very long, because I don’t think anyone is arguing that we as a generation and as a species as a whole are able to know more now than we ever have.  However, what that has done is made it so we actually don’t know any more and in many cases know less.  Results have begun to indicate that younger generations (us millennials and the iGens that come after us) are actually retaining less knowledge because we are instead able to access it anywhere and anytime we want at the press of a button.  Think about it – how many phone numbers do you have memorized?  Can you list off the 50 states?  What did you eat for lunch last Wednesday?  If you give me a minute I can probably look through my calendar and tell you.


Television screens, video games, cell phones…this generation’s everyday life is filled with constant pings, vibrations, and push notifications.  The sheer amount of light exposure is enough to drive you nuts, and is influencing things that range from our ability to interact socially to our sleep patterns and overall body chemistry.  Every time you get a ping on your phone letting you know you’ve been liked or commented or re-anythinged a little bit of dopamine is released by your brain.  Dopamine is the chemical released in the pleasure centers of our brains and is also very effective and addictive in narcotic form. And just like those who are chasing the dragon, our generation of social media junkies are trying to just find a high as good as the first time someone liked the picture of your dog in a bow tie, even if it was only a bot.  We allow this to interfere with our lives, twitching a little bit each time the buzz of a phone goes off wondering ‘is that mine?’.  It also drives us to some interesting pastimes, wavering on two very heavy extremes including extreme overstimulation (think Electric Forest, LollaPalooza, Coachella) or extreme understimulation (yoga retreats, backpacking in the Andes, chaperoned ‘descreen’ time).  These extremes have become a reality in our lives due to the normality of constantly being ready to read the next 140 characters.

How We’re Different:

In Our Work:

Millennials are lazy, constantly need praise, don’t understand paying our dues, and are too aggressive about raises.  At least that’s what I’ve heard about us from those who are older or higher up in organizations.  Other ways of saying these are efficient, goal oriented, driven, and understanding of our value.  Many of us were asked since kindergarten what we wanted to do with our lives and lo and behold we actually thought about it.  This career determination, whether based on what we want to do in our work or what we want to get out of it, has created a revolution in the workplace.  A number of organizations have caught on to this and changed, because as a whole we are great resources for any organization.  Those which aren’t adapting are seeing their workforce age into retirement with no influx of new talent.

  • Benefits
  • Culture
  • Optimization

One key way we as a generation are changing the workplace is in the benefits we request.  We often look for perks beyond salary in compensation.  Of particular import are vacation time, childcare, flexible hours, and work-from-home availability.  No longer is it odd to see a company with an unlimited vacation policy.  Another trend that has caught on is the ability to bring your dog to work.  More affluent workplaces or those trying to attract younger talent go all out with the extra benefits including extended parental leave, on-site fitness facilities, sports and entertainment events, pet health insurance, tuition reimbursement, cultural memberships, massages, and fully staffed free cafeterias.  And that only scratches the surface.  In 2016, job seekers, the largest percentage of which are millennials, reported 57% of the time that benefits and perks were among their top considerations when evaluating an offer.  I don’t know about you but I would love to have my fluff monster in the office with me.


Some may argue that culture is a benefit in the workplace but I consider them two distinct entities.  While benefits are explicitly included in a compensation package culture is how you and the humans you work with interact on a daily basis, especially as our offices become more collaborative than ever.  One of the most significant changes that our generation is forcing onto companies is actually just that.  We are a cooperative age group, one that considers the sum of the parts to be greater than individual contribution.  As we’ve embraced open-sourced software, crowdsourcing, and social media movements we’ve shown again and again what great things can be done through cooperation.  Unfortunately, that often clashes with the traditional business structure that is strictly and largely hierarchical.  While many companies are attempting to increase the cooperation of their employee’s, traditional perceptions about business roles can cause serious cogs in the machine.  If you’re trying to bring more workplace cooperation into your employees’ environment I suggest being open and honest with them from the start, and begin the cooperation then and there.  Ask your group or team or unit how they want to go about this change, whether people are comfortable with it, what concerns they may have.  Buy in is always most effective when everyone has some skin in the game.  If you’re an employee working through a transition to cooperation, speak up.  The only way this works for everyone is if everyone is involved.  And if you don’t want to cooperate that’s fine, just know you’re falling to the way of the dinosaurs and floppy disks.


One big driver behind our generation’s desire to cooperate is the need to feel like what we’re doing matters.  Some like to deem us the generation of the participation trophy, but we aren’t driven to empty goals.  What we really long for is to feel purpose in our work.  If it seems like the things we do on a daily basis aren’t bringing us any closer to our goals, we aren’t afraid to cut our loses and move on.  60% of millennials are open to a new job opportunity and 55% say they are unengaged at work. While we may not be the job-hopping generation that seemed to be the stereotype up until last year, our sentiment about quitting a job that doesn’t align to our goals and values is higher than generations past.

In Our Play:


From glamping to hot yoga retreats to Electric Forest, we millennials like to let loose a little different than our parents did.  But as the generation of tech we’ve also come to embrace the idea of ‘descreening’.  In general, we’ve accepted the fact that technology and especially social media or work connectedness surround us on a daily basis all hours of night and day.  So when we have that chance to take a vacation and get away from it all, we actually want to get away from it.  A new industry has begun to thrive that actively cuts vacationers off from technology, and we’re beginning to learn to shut the screen down at dinner, at concerts, in museums, or elsewhere.


As a generation, we are more altruistic in our ways than those who came before us even though we are less likely to belong to an organized religion.  I would argue that is because we have more opportunities to give back to our community outside of religion than those who came before us, but this also relies on the amount of wealth, free time, and exposure we have.  We carry all of these in significant abundance over our parents and especially their parents, unless you’re descended from royalty or robber barons.  We aren’t just all consumed by the latest video game or Pharrell album.  On average, we each give $600 per year to some charitable cause and love to use our social media accounts to discuss the relevant social justice actions in our lives.  In fact, if you looked at the top trending Twitter moments last Wednesday they included: Charlottesville, the review of national monuments, the melting of Alaska’s permafrost, and Women’s Hour. Through technology we have become more connected to one another and those who are empathetic have become able to see the struggles of others around us, even if we ourselves are not personally influenced by hardship.  The ability of social media to tell stories of anyone with an internet connection has created a community that spans beyond physical boundaries and brings you directly to your tribe in the online community.  It allows you to feel special while also not feeling alone bringing a brave confidence to a generation not afraid of speaking up.  I would argue that’s a good thing.

Use cases:

Things we’ve seen so far (this week the use cases are things being done by millennials that would not have been conceived by any previous generation).

There are a number of well-known millennials who are doing things that have high influence across a spectrum of industries.  Take Emma Watson, who speaks out on behalf of the UN for equality for all, or Mark Zuckerberg who built an empire on social media and is now using that empire to attempt to cure all disease.  There are plenty of unknown faces though that are doing great things to better the reputation of us lazy millennials.  I’ll cover a few both known and less known here but there are plenty more in my resources list and out there in the world.

Alex Momont was a student at the Delft University of Technology who in 2014 had a passion for drones and wanted to find a positive use for the technology.  Partnering with Living Tomorrow and the University Hospital of Ghent, Momant developed the ambulance drone to deliver emergency supplies to a victim ahead of EMT arrival.  Today ambulance drones are in used in a number of cities and have the potential to cut down arrival time of supplies by an average of 16 minutes.  Not only does the drone deliver materials, it also gives instructions to those around the victim on how to use the supplies available.  Cardiac arrest victims most often need to be cared for within 4 – 10 minutes, so cutting any arrival time by an average of 16 minutes has high potential to save lives.  I would count that as a win.

Taylor Swift is now a household name, and some may be rolling their eyes when they hear that name come out of my mouth.  But Taylor Swift is a millennial who understands the power of technology, particularly social media, to further her career and her message. After a long hiatus, the musician released a new song on YouTube on Aug 24, 2017.  By Aug 27, 2017 the video had 35.4 million views and 206,106 comments.  She boasts 102 million followers on Instagram and 85.4 million followers on Twitter.  In 2015 Ms. Swift posted a letter directed towards Apple Music on her Tumblr account derailing the company for not paying artists during the company’s 30-day free trial of the product and pulling all of her music until the company agreed to pay artists.  Most recently the artist has gone through a very public trial in which she was accused of improper involvement of the firing of a disk jockey and she instead of backing down countersued accusing the other party of sexual assault.  The proceedings, which remained very public throughout, concluded Aug 14, 2017 and sided in favor of Swift with an award of $1 meant to be symbolic and support victims of sexual assault cases that had not been made public.  While there is no doubt that Taylor Swift would have been a great artist without social media, the things she has done and the acclaim she has found would have been impossible for any artist before her attempting to speak directly to her fans.

Oscar Schwartz is a poet who is asking the world if computers can write poetry.  A writer, researcher, and teacher in Darwin, Australia, Schwartz is looking into what it means to be human and how interaction with technology changes that.  Right now, he is running a project that looks into 7 of the jobs least likely to be automated.  What he wants to know is what makes up those occupations, how they might be automated (if they can be) and if they are automated what creative bits may be lost.  He and partners have started the site Bot or Not which uses the Turing test and allows users to determine whether poetry examples are created by a human or an algorithm.  Continuously questioning what the difference between human and computer is, the researcher believes the computer is a mirror reflecting human back on human.  As technology becomes even more an integral part of our lives, this continuous reflection on what makes us human and what makes a computer a computer may be exactly what we need.

Ideal World:

We millennials know what we’re doing just about as much as everyone else.  I think the difference lies in the fact that we want to change that.  Maybe I’m young and naïve and we’re all young and naïve.  There are better ways of doing things though and with the access to technology we now have those better ways are more possible than ever.  In my mind, a perfect world includes the cooperation of millennials and the generations before and after to use the brilliant tools we have at our fingertips to get us that much closer to zero marginal cost.  That’s what we all want, right?  More leisure time without having to sacrifice standard of living.  Between expertise of the generation and the amazing advancements in things like AI, blockchain, and quantum computing I believe that we can get close within our lifetimes.

That’s it for today everyone.  I know that was a bit different what I’ve done the last few weeks but trust me, it fits into the puzzle.  Every society needs early adopters and now there is a whole generation of us.  Next week we talk about the data storage revolution, because where else are we going to put all this information we’re creating? Til next week!

All the best,